Analysis of Second and Third Formant Locus Pattern and C-V Coarticulation in EkeGusii





Work Unit:

Kisii University, Kenya;Kisii University, Kenya


Vol.10 No.2 (Serial No.17) 2022






This study analyses locus equations and regression lines relating to second and third formants as a measure of co-articulatory influence of vowels following stop consonants in EkeGusii. Coarticulation can be represented statistically using a schematic representation of locus equations by tracking consonant-vowel (CV) transition as a useful tool in the discrimination of place of articulation. Acoustic data was collected using Praat version 6.0 from four males and four females, native speakers of EkeGusii. Locus equations for the eight speakers were derived from CV words with intervocalic voiceless bilabial /p/, voiceless alveolar /t/ and voiceless velar /k/ preceding vowel /i/, /a/ and /o/ contexts. Scatter plots of locus equation of F2 and F3 onsets-F2 and F3 midpoints revealed patterns for each of the three voiceless stops in EkeGusii. The strongest degree of coarticulation is reported for velars then bilabials and the least degree of coarticulation with alveolars.

Key Words:

locus equation, Praat, F2 transition, F2 target, coarticulation, EkeGusii, scatter plots, acoustic data


DOI: 10.26478/ja2022.10.17.5


Agwuele, A., H. M. Sussman & B. Lindblom. 2009. The Effect of Speaking Rate on Consonant Vowel Coarticulation [J]. Phonetica, 65:194-209.

Bosire, M. B. 1993. Ekegusii: A comparative study of Rogoro and Maate dialects [D].Master’s Thesis. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.

Cammenga, J. 2002. Phonology and Morphology of Ekegusii: A Bantu language of Kenya [M]. Koln: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.

Clements, G. N. 1985. The Geometry of Phonological Features [J]. Phonology Yearbook, 2:225-252.

Davenport, M. & S. J. Hannahs. 2005. Introducing Phonetics and Phonology [M]. London: Arnold.

Everett, C. 2008. Locus Equation Analysis as a Tool for Linguistic Fieldwork [J]. Language Documentation and Conservation, 2(2):185-211.

Fant, G. 1960. Acoustic Theory of Speech Production [M]. The Hague: Mouton.

Falek, L., O. Bouferroum, A. Djeradi & H. Teffahi. 2014. Analysis and Recognition of Arabic Consonants Using Locus Equations [J]Lecture Notes on Information Theory, 2(1):72-77.

Forrest, K., G. Weismer, P. C. Milenkovic & R. N. Dougall. 1988. Statistical Analysis of Word-Initial Voiceless Obstruents: Preliminary data [J]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84:115-123.

Fowler, C. A. 1994. Invariants, Specifiers, Cues: An investigation of locus equations as information for place of articulation [J]. Perception & Psychophysics, 55:597-610.

Fruchter, D. & H. Sussman. 1997. The Perceptual Relevance of Locus Equations [J]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102(5):2997-3008.

Graetzer, S., J. Fletcher & J. Hajek. 2015. Locus Equations and Coarticulation in Three Australian Languages [J]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(2):806-821.

Harrington, J. 2011. Phonetic Analysis of Speech Corpora [M]. Munich: Wiley-Blackwell.

Keating, P., J. Westbury & K. N. Stevens. 1980. Mechanisms of Stop Consonant Release for Different Places of Articulation [J]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 67(Supp.1): S93.

Ladefoged, P. 2001. A Course in Phonetics [M]. Boston: Heinle and Heinle Thomson Learning.

Lindblom, B. 1963. On Vowel Reduction[R]. Speech Transmission Laboratory Report No. 29. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology.

Mecha, E. G. 2006. The Phonology and Morphology of Ekegusii Reduplication: An optimality theoretic approach [D]. Master’s Thesis. Nairobi: Kenyatta University.

Ochieng’, W. R. 1974. A Pre-colonial History of the Gusii of Western Kenya from C.A.D. 1500 to 1914 [M]. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.

Otieno, P. N. & E. G. Mecha. 2019. Acoustic Analysis of Ekegusii Vowel System [J]. Macrolinguistics, 7(2):92-109.

Otieno, P. N., E. Mecha & N. Opande. 2020. An Acoustic Analysis of the Short and Long Vowels in Ekegusii Language [J]International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication, 3(1):4-20.

Recasens, D. 2006. Acoustic Analysis [A]. In W. Hardcastle (ed.). Coarticulation: Theory, data, and analysis [C]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stevens, K. N., S. Y. Manuel & M. L. Matthies. 1999. Revisiting Place of Articulation Measures for Stop Consonants: Implications for models of consonant production [A]. In J. J. Ohala, Y. Hasegawa, M. Ohala, D. Granville & A. C. Bailey (eds.). Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Vol.2 [C]. San Francisco: University of California, 1117-1120.

Sussman, H. M., H. A. McCaffrey & S. A. Mathews. 1991. An Investigation of Locus Equations as a Source of Relational Invariance for Stop Place Categorization [J]. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90:1309-1325.

Sussman, H. M. 1994. The Phonological Reality of Locus Equations across Manner Class Distinctions: Preliminary observations [J]. Phonetica, 51:119-131.

Sussman, H. M. & J. Shore. 1996. Locus Equations as Phonetic Descriptors of Consonantal Place of Articulation [J]. Perception and Psychophysics, 58:936-946.

Velonec, V. 2015. Coarticulation [A]. In J. Davis (ed.). Phonetics [C]. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 47-86.

Whiteley, W. H. 1965. A Practical Introduction to Gusii [M]. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.

Zhang Hanbin. 2017. Coarticulation of Nasal Vowels in Monguor Language [J]. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 107:81-84.

  • Macrolinguistics(ISSN 1934-5755,e-ISSN 2473-6376)is an international academic journal w...
  • 1. Authors should submit the original work. This journal uses iThentic...
  • 1. Peer review of this journal consists of three procedures in sequence: initial review ...
  • The Learned Press, 9 East 37th Street, Suite: WL, New York, NY 10016, U.S.APhone: 646-831-8213Fa...