Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Vol.10 No.1 (Serial No.16) 2022
The present paper focuses on a descriptive method of valency-increasing devices in five South Ethio-Semitic languages (Amharic, Harari, Kɨstane, Məsqan, and Endəgaɲ). The five languages were selected for two reasons. The first reason is that conducting a valency study on all South Ethio-Semitic languages would have been impossible. With limited resources and time, it will prove difficult to cover all languages. The second reason is that, except for Amharic, these languages are known for being the least studied. Most of them even lack sufficient recording and description. So this research needs to choose the representative language in each branch. As a result, no explicit theoretical framework is followed; data analysis is guided solely by a descriptive perspective. The study’s data was gathered by consulting native speakers via elicitation. Valency has been considered as both a semantic and syntactic notion. As a semantic notion, it is used to refer to the participants in an event; as a syntactic notion, it is used to indicate the number of arguments in a construction. There are different types of transitivity classes of verbs in the South Ethio-Semitic Language, which is spoken in Ethiopia: intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive. Apart from these, there are verbs that can be used both intransitively and transitively. The facts that provide clear evidence for grammatical relations in South Ethio-Semitic languages are crucial to the study of the concept of valency-increasing devices. As is the case in many languages, South Ethio-Semitic languages possess morphosyntactic means through which the valency of verbs can be adjusted. The application of these morphosyntactic processes decreases or increases the valency of verbs. This article looks at valency-increasing devices in Causative and Applicative South Ethio-Semitic languages.
applicative, causative, intransitive, SESL, transitive, valency
Adigeh, Y. 2015. Descriptive Grammar of Endegagn [D]. Doctoral Dissertation. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University.
Allerton, D. J. 1982. Valency and the English Verb [M]. London : Academic Press.
Baye, Y.1987. Amharic Grammar [M]. Addis Ababa:EMPDA.
Baye, Y.2008. Amharic Grammar (2nd Edition) [M]. Addis Ababa:Eleni Printing Press.
Beniam, M. 2013. Harari: A descriptive grammar [D]. Doctoral Dissertation. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University.
Bender, M. L. & M. Eteffa. 1976. Two Cushitic Languages [A]. In M. L. Bender, J. D. Bowen, R. L.Cooper & C. A. Ferguson (eds.). Language in Ethiopia [C]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 130-154.
Comrie, B. 1981.Language Universals and Linguistics Typology [M]. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Comrie, B. 1989. Language Universals and Linguistic Typology: Syntax and morphology (2nd Edition) [M]. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Debela, B. W. 2010. Morphology and Verb Construction Types of Kistaniniya [D]. Doctoral Dissertation. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Dixon, R. M. W. & A. Y. Aikhenvald. 2000. Changing Valency: Case studies in transitivity [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dixon, R. 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory, Volume 3: Further grammatical topics [M]. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
Eberhard, D. M., G. F. Simons & C. D. Fennig (eds.). 2022. Ethnologue: Languages of the world (25th Edition) [OL]. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: http://www. ethnologue. com.
Fleming, H. C. 1976. Kefa (Gonga) Languages [A]. In M. L. Bender (ed.). The Non-Semitic Languages of Ethiopia [C]. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University, 351-376.
Hetzron, R. 1972. Ethiopian Semitic Studies in Classification [M]. Cambridge: Manchester University Press.
Huddleston, R. & G. K. Pullum. 2005. A Student’s Introduction to English Grammar [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Katamba, F. 1993. Morphology [M]. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Leslau, W. 1951. Archaic Features in South Ethiopic [J]. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 71(4):212-230.
Leslau, W. 1969. Towards the Classification of Gurage Dialects [J]. Journal of Semitic Studies, 14:96-109.
Leslau, W. 1995. Reference Grammar of Amharic [M]. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Lyons, J. 1968. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mengistu, A.2000. Valency-changing and Valency-encoding Devices in Amharic [A]. In R.M.W. Dixon & A.Y. Arkhenvald (eds.). Changing Valency:Case studies in transitivity[C]. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 312-332.
Mengistu, A. 2002. Verb Classes and Transitivity in Amharic [M]. Munich: Lincom.
Ousman, S. A. 2015. Descriptive Grammar of Mesqan [D]. Doctoral Dissertation. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University.
Payne, T. E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax: A guide for field linguists [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 173-186.
Peterson, D. A. 2007.Applicative Constructions [M]. New York: Oxford University Press.
Radford, A. 1997. Syntax: A minimalist introduction [M]. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Song, J. J. 2013. Periphrastic Causative Constructions [OL]. In M. S. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (eds). The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available online at http://wals.info/chapter/110.
Tesnière, L. 2015. Elements of Structural Syntax [M]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Velupillai, V. 2012. An Introduction to Linguistic Typology [M]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Yimam, B. 1987. Amharic Grammar [M]. Addis Ababa: Educational Materials Production and Distribution Agency.
Yimam, B. 2008. Amharic Grammar (2nd Edition) [M]. Addis Ababa: Eleni Printing Press.